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The process of changing the air of a closed place using different methods and tools is called ventilation. Systems that provide this are called ventilation systems. This system, which helps to remove the polluted air in the environment by removing the accumulated gases, creates a healthy air environment for us. It contributes to fresh air entering the environment by removing bad odors from the environment. It can be provided ventilation by natural ways, or it can be turned into a healthy area of the environment by using artificial means, ie mechanical tools.
What is Ventilation System?
The purpose of the ventilation system is to move a certain amount of air at a certain speed and purify it from contaminants. The same steps are followed at the basis of all the ventilation systems used. Therefore, the system should be designed in the same way, according to the tobacco and pollutant ratio in all areas where the process will be carried out.
Ventilation System Advantages
Continuous renewal of ambient air and fresh oxygen supply
Keeping the humidity and temperature at the comfort level with the ventilation system.
Avoiding bad events like explosion and fire.
To help eliminate air pollution.
Preventing unwanted air currents such as the spread of stench in environments.
The natural ventilation method, which is an environmentally friendly application where a building is ventilated without the need for energy use, is also very important for sustainable development.
In order for natural ventilation systems to be applied correctly, it is important to understand the basic information about the air flow given below.
Causes of air flow: Air flows either due to natural convection currents or due to pressure differences.
Types of airflow: There are 4 basic types of airflow. Turbulent, separated, layered and swirling.
Inertia: Because the air has some mass, the moving air stream tends to go in a straight line. When the air flow is forced to change its direction, it follows the curve and never moves at right angles. This feature is important in the application of ventilation systems.
Air conservation: Air can neither be created nor destroyed in the building area, so the air approaching a building and the air leaving are equal. Thus, the lines showing the air flow show continuity.
Low and high pressure areas: When the air flow hits the facade of a building in the direction of the wind, it compresses and creates positive pressure. It also creates negative pressure when absorbed on the windward front. Attention should be paid to all of these features in the areas to be ventilated.
Mechanical Suction – Natural Feeding Systems
This system; The removal of the contaminated air through mechanical exhaust systems in many parts of the buildings is based on the ventilation system and clean oxygen entering the door joints and windows through infiltration (leakage).
This method creates a negative pressure inside the building sections where suction is applied. Along with the fresh air through the window and door openings, unwanted dirty air can also enter.
The only advantage of using this system is that the energy consumption is lower compared to using the full mechanical ventilation system.
Mechanical Feeding – Natural Output
Rarely in the buildings, fresh air is entered by mechanical feeding and air is extracted naturally. In this system, the air distribution is not suitable again. If a filter is placed in the feed channel inlet and the channel inlet, the fresh air entering inside is cleaned from some of the pollutants. Dirty air is removed from the chimney or door-window openings.
Since the place where ventilation is done using this system is positively pressurized, unwanted pollutants from another environment cannot enter this area. Energy consumption is less compared to full mechanical systems.
It is a ventilation system where clean air is delivered to the interior using mechanical systems and unwanted air is mechanically absorbed. In a well-designed system, air distribution and orientation can be done correctly. However, compared to other methods, energy consumption is much higher in this ventilation system. This rate can be doubled.
Why Ventilation should be done?
The air, which stops in a closed environment, is lost in natural mixing ratios as time goes on and goes away from the comfort conditions it has for us. In this case, it causes sweating as the indoor temperature increases and chills when it drops. Difficulty in breathing starts with the decrease in oxygen ratio. Since the amount of oxygen that should be at a normal level decreases because the ventilation system is not installed, feelings such as headaches and fatigue appear. In order to avoid these, the amount of oxygen in our living areas must be increased to 21%. It is possible to achieve this by ventilation.
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